Amri is an ancient settlement in modern-day Sindh, Pakistan, that goes back to 3600 BCE. The site is located south of Mohenjo Daro on Hyderabad-Dadu Road more than 100 kilometres north of Hyderabad, Pakistan.
The archaeological importance of Amri was demonstrated in 1929 by the excavations of N.G.Majumdar, who discovered there, for the first time, a settlement of pre-Harappan date and culture that was underlying a Harappan one. These excavations however, were on a small scale and the account that was published was of a summary character. It was the work of Jean-Marie Casal and his colleagues over three seasons between 1959 and 1962 that established the nature of this pre-Harappan culture and how it was replaced.

Casal’s excavation revealed four successive periods of occupation. The first of these is the ‘Amrian’, which relates to other pre-Harappan sites in the region as well. Amri is the type-site of this early cultural assemblage. In this phase, houses were of mud-brick. Pottery, copper and bronze fragments were also recovered. Phase II shows an increasing component of Harappan materials alongside the Amrian. Period III belongs to the Harappan, giving evidence of early, transitional, and late sub-phases, into a final ‘Jhukar’ sub-phase. The final phase, Period IV, is not well represented, but it produced the coarse grey ware comparable to the sites of the ‘Jhangar’ complex.

The early occupation at Amri has been dated between 3600 and 3300 BCE and thus represents a slightly later phase than Balakot. Amri is located close to the west bank of the Indus river but also only some 10 kilometres from the easternmost extension of the Baluchistan uplands. It is in the Dadu district of Sindh, and lies to the south of Mohenjo Daro. The site comprises two main archaeological mounds, A in the east and B in the west.



Chanhu-daro is an archaeological site belonging to the Indus Valley civilization. The site is located 130 kilometers (81 mi) south of Mohenjo-daro, in Sindh, Pakistan. The settlement was inhabited between 4000 and 1700 BCE, and is considered to have been a centre for manufacturing carnelian beads. This site is a group of three low mounds that excavations has shown were parts of a single settlement, approximately 7 hectares in size. Chanhudaro was first excavated by N. G. Majumdar in March, 1931, and again during winter field session of 1935-36 by the American School of Indic and Iranian Studies and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston team led by Ernest John Henry Mackay. Prof. W. Norman Brown of the University of Pennsylvania was instrumental in enabling the funds for this project.After the independence of Pakistan, Mohammed Rafique Mughal also did exploratory work in the area. Since 2015 the archaeological excavations have been carried out by the French Archaeological Mission in the Indus Basin (MAFBI), directed by Aurore Didier (CNRS). The excavations are carried out in cooperation with the Department of Archaeology and Museums, Government of Pakistan and the Culture Department, Government of Sindh


Bambore is a city dating to the 1st century BCE located in modern-day Sindh, Pakistan. It dates back to the Scytho-Parthian era[citation needed] and was later controlled by Muslims from the 8th to the 13th century, after which it was abandoned. Remains of one of the earliest known mosques in the region dating back to 727 AD are still preserved in the city.In 2004, Department of Archaeology and Museums Pakistan submitted the site for UNESCO World Heritage Sites.The city of Bhanbhore dates from the 1st century BC to the 13th century AD. Archaeological records reveal remnants of three distinct periods on the site: Scytho-Parthian (1st century BC to 2nd century AD)[citation needed], Hindu-Buddhist (2nd century AD to 8th century AD), and early Islamic (8th century AD to 13th century AD). The city was gradually deserted after the 13th century due to change in the course of the Indus.Some archaeologist and historians suggest that Bhanbhore is the historical city of Debal, which the Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim conquered in 711–712 after defeating Raja Dahir, the last Hindu ruler of Sindh.However, this identification has not yet been confirmed, though numerous research and excavation works have been carried out to link the two cities.Preliminary excavations in the area were first done by Ramesh Chandra Majumdar in 1928 and later by Leslie Alcock in 1951. Pakistani archaeologist Dr F.A. Khan conducted extensive studies and excavations in the site from 1958 to 1965. In March 2012, the Culture Department of Government of Sindh organised the first International Conference on Bhanbhore, where different experts and archaeologists presented their research on the site.Bhanbhore may also have been known as Barbari or Barbaricon (Βαρβαρικόν) to the Greeks and through the centuries,but it has not yet been proven that these historical cities are the same.

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